Tuesday, 14 May 2013


Whareroa married Tamerea, and his kainga at Aotea was Motakotako.

Wednesday, 8 May 2013

Establishing a timeframe for POHEPOHE

Pohepohe, son of Muriwhenua and Raumako; had two daughters, Ita and Pare Te Kanawa (alias Wikitoria).  Both were married to Wiremu Tamehana.  The first daughter died, and so Wiremu married her sister.

Wiremu Tamehana was born c.1805.  In 1839, he converted to christianity by Brown in Tauranga. Prior to this he was known as Tarapipipi.  He married Ita in 1839, and she died in 1840. He married Pare Te Kanawa soon after.  So Pohepohe can be compared to be in the generation of Te Waharoa, though he was probably markedly younger than him.  In 1839, Pohepohe has daughters of marriageable age.  He could have been anywhere between 35 - 50 years of age at that time.

A year later, Pohepohe is a signatory on the Waikato version of the Treaty of Waitangi, that was signed at Waikato Heads on April 11 & 26, 1840.  Other's related to him signed as well, the most noticeable signatories for the writer's purposes are Kukutai and of course Muriwhenua. Refer following table.

The above Muriwhenua, Ngati Haua from Aotea; is obviously the same Muriwhenua in Angas's painting, "Muriwhenua 1844" published in The New Zealanders (1848).  

If Pohepohe is between the estimated age range of 35 - 50, it would still be possible for his father to be alive, and to be aged between 60-80 years of age.   The description of Angas's MURIWHENUA is that he was between 80 - 90 years old; and if this is so, then it is highly possible that the subject is Muriwhenua, father of Pohepohe.  

Muriwhenua - Roberton's Account (Including Irohanga and Te Riunui)

The following is a representation of Muriwhenua as documented by JBW Roberton Maori Settlement of the Waikato District (Rev.ed. 1983).  The original edition was published in 1965.  His chief informant was Tita Wetere of Ngati Hikairo; and he also received information from Tita's father, Taui Wetere.

  • Parengaope was first married to Umukiwhakatane, and after his death she became the wife of Te Ahooterangi, his younger brother.   Muriwhenua is hence, her son from a later marriage.
  • He says both families of Parengaope are known as Ngati Hourua and had close associations with Ngati Maniapoto.  This is probably based on Parengaope being the son of Te Kanawa
  • He marks the mid 1700s as a time when Te Ahooterangi was beheaded at Kawhia.  [author note : he has based this on generations, this can never be more than an estimate/ educated guess, though this needs to be kept in mind, when deciding a punative range of birth dates for Muriwhenua; there is inuendo that Te Ahooterangi was an aged man when he fathered Muriwhenua]
  • Near the end of the 1700s, an aged Hikairo joins Ngati Hourua in a battle against Ngati Whakaue and Ngati Raukawa, at Pukerimu near Cambridge.  Ngati Hourua were defeated and Irohanga and Te Riunui were killed.  Muriwhenua was caught but spared. 
  • Roberton is quite specific which Muriwhenua this is; ie: son of Parengaope by her second husband, Te Ahooterangi. 
  • Roberton makes no mention of Paora Muriwhenua, as son of Irohanga; and refers only to two of his sons; Maungatautari and Wahanui as listed in the above table.  

To Summarise -  Roberton places Te Ahooterangi's death date in the 1850s - 1860s; so Muriwhenua would have had to have been born before then.  I reiterate that these times are only estimations to fit into a wider chronological framework that Roberton himself has created.  This framework commences at an estimated arrival date of the Tainui Waka at 1350; and works his timeline from that commencement.  I think a more reliable timeline should commence from the Land court period - from thence backwards to the Missionary Period, when dates were first documented, and then by generation to go further back from that point.

Tuesday, 7 May 2013

Angas, George French - Depiction of Muriwhenua - PAORA MURIWHENUA

George French Angas (1822 - 1886) visited New Zealand in 1844. During this time, he sketched and painted many Maori Rangatira. One of which, was the chief Muriwhenua; who was located at Aotea.  In an annotated inventory list; the South Australian Museum; records that once arriving at "the residence of Reverend Mr Smales .... Angas sketches Paora Muriw[h]enua".  Paora  Muriwhenua, was the son of Irohanga; see genealogy below. 

Having the name Paora, almost suggested that he had converted to Christianity; However, in The New Zealanders Illustrated, where the lithograph was first published, Angas makes a summary of his subject, Muriwhenua; and describes him as a heathen who is not willing to renounce the Maori religion.  

The following summary accompanies the lithograph of Muriwhenua

"1. MURIWENUA is the oldest chief of Aotea, a harbour on the west coast, a few miles to the northward of Waingaroa. There is a Wesleyan mission station at Aotea, and this chief, though still a heathen himself, and unwilling to renounce the religion of the Tohunga, is friendly and well-disposed towards the Christians. Muriwenua cannot be less than from eighty to ninety years of age; he has a remarkably tall, spare figure, and his dishevelled hair and grisly beard impart to him a savage appearance. Formerly he was one of the most courageous warriors of his day: now he is regarded as possessing unusual powers of sorcery, and has much influence amongst his tribe. He is represented wearing a beautiful topuni, or war mat, of dog's hair; the colours of which are so assorted into stripes as to resemble a tiger's skin. In the distance is part of Aotea Harbour, with the mountain of Perongia beyond."

"Muriwhenua went to Aotea to live when the churches were built, lived there to an old age and died and was brought to Waipa for burial amongst his own people"   (Waikato MB 16/68)

Paora Muriwhenua died without issue, but survived by two sisters who had descendants.